Dyer and Shafer (1999) say agile companies like HP, Nike, and 3M balance stability and flexibility well by striving to develop the following capabilities:
- Reading the market: Continuous scans of the project and external environment, to identify change which is quickly translated into options and solutions;
- Mobilising rapid response: Rapid decision making capability, and rapid resource redeployment ability;
- Embedding organisational learning: The ability to use change developments to improve current operations, and challenge current ways of thinking and operating.
Dyer, Lee, and Richard Shafer. 1999. "From human resource strategy to organizational effectiveness: Lessons from research on organizational agility." In Strategic human resources management research in the 21st century, research in personnel and human resource management, edited by P. Wright, L. Dyer, J. B. Boudreau and G. Milkovich, 145–174. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.